Casualties of War

updated: 2024-02-08 Bottom

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  "Res ipsa loquitur."
(The facts speak for themselves.)

Political Casualties

2017-11-06: David Satter: WSJ: 100 years of communism, and 100M killed by communist rulers & their operatives     2017-11-20: Laura M. Nicolae: Harvard Crimson     UHawaii: power kills: murder by communism     2020-06-12: Lee Edwards, Ph.D.: Heritage Foundation: regressivism: we must never forget the 100M victims of collectivism     2018 April: Romina Bandura & Brunilda Kosta: ResearchGate/ U of Tirana/ Center for Strategic & International Studies: the dangers of forgetting the devastating legacy of Illiberal Leftism/ Regressivism/ Socialism/ Fascism/ Nazism/ Marxism/ Communism/ Bolshevism/ Stalinism/ Maoism/ Collectivism (graph; 7 chapters, 38 pages in pdf)     2017-10-28: Marian L. Tupy: Cato Institute/ Richmond VA Times-Dispatch: 100 years of death & deprivation from Illiberal Leftism/ Regressivism/ Socialism/ Fascism/ Nazism/ Marxism/ Communism/ Bolshevism/ Stalinism/ Maoism/ Collectivism     Epoch Times: the dead end of Illiberal Leftism/ Regressivism/ Socialism/ Fascism/ Nazism/ Marxism/ Communism/ Bolshevism/ Stalinism/ Maoism/ Collectivism: articles by multiple authors from 2009-03-10 to 2021-12-17       2021-11-07: David Henderson: Victims of Communism Day       Victims of

War Casualties


Ancient China
Qin armies killed up to 1.5M soldiers of other states between 356BCE and 236BCE.

up to 50K Roman soldiers were killed at Lake Trasimene and Cannae during wars with the Carthaginians/Phoenicians.

Roman Republic & Empire "necrometrics".

88BCE: Mithridates vi Eupator of Pontus's order for the massacre of all Roman citizens in Asia was estimated to have resulted in 80K deaths in 1 day. (source: Marcus Tullius Cicero & Michael Grant 1989 _Selected Political Speeches_ pg38 note5)

Jewish uprising 66CE to 74CE: over 1M Jews were killed (R' Jonathan Sacks 2000 _A Letter in the Scroll_ pp142-143)

bar Kochba uprising 132CE: 580K Jews were killed and Jerusalem was razed. (R' Jonathan Sacks 2000 _A Letter in the Scroll_ pg143)

"Near Eastern Islam came to regard the Latin atrocities at Jerusalem as an act of crusader barbarity and defilement, demanding of urgent vengeance. By the 13th century, the Iraqi Muslim ibn al-Athir [Ali ibn al-Athir/Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ash-Shaybani/Ali Izz al-Din ibn al-Athir al-Jazari] estimated the number of Muslim dead at 70K. Modern historians long regarded this figure to be an exagteration, but generally accepted that Latin estimates in excess of 10K might be accurate. However, recent research has uncovered close contemporary Hebrew testimony which indicates that casualties may not have exceeded 3K, and that large numbers of prisoners were taken when Jerusalem fell. This suggests that, even in the Middle Ages, the image of the crusaders' brutality in 1099 [1099-07-13 to 1099-07-15] was subject to hyperbole and manipulation on both sides of the divide." --- Thomas S. Asbridge 2010 _The Crusades: The Authoritative History of the War for the Holy Land_ pg102
(citing section1 notes 40-41: Raymond of Aguilers _Historia Francorum qui Ceperunt Iherusalem_ pg150;
_Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum_/_The Deeds of the Franks and other Pilgrims to Jerusalem_ pg91;
Robert the Monk _Historia Iherosolimitana_ in _Recueil des historiens des croisades. Historiens occidentaux_/_Collection of the Historians of the Crusades: Occidental Historians_ vol3 pg868;
Ali ibn al-Athir/Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ash-Shaybani/Ali Izz al-Din ibn al-Athir al-Jazari "Kamel Altevarykh"/"The Complete History" _Recueil des historiens des croisades. Historiens orientaux_/_Collection of the Historians of the Crusades: Oriental Historians_ vol1 pp189-744 pg278; or Ali ibn al-Athir/Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ash-Shaybani/Ali Izz al-Din ibn al-Athir al-Jazari & D.S. Richards 2006, 2010 _The Chronicle of ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period from al-Kamil fil-Tarikh_ vol1 1097-1146 pg278
Fulcher of Chartres & Heinrich Hagenmeyer 1913 _Historia Hierosolymitana 1095-1127_ pp304-305;
Jonathan Simon Christopher Riley-Smith, Michael Evans & Benjamin Z. Kedar et al. 2004 _Crusades_ vol3 pp15-75)

Temuejin/Genghis lhan/ Chinggis Xan/Chinggis lhagan/Jenghis khanc. 1160CE-1227CE about 40M.

siege of Baghdad (forces of Kublai khan's western ilkhanates vs. forces of Abbasid caliphate & Ayyubid dynasty & the Assasins) 1258-01-29 to 1258-02-10: 50K-800K (wikipedia)

destruction under the Mongol empire (wikipedia)

the fall of Kublai khan's Yuan dynasty and establishment of the Ming dynasty: about 7.5M.

Timur/Temur/amir Timur/Tamerlane 1336CE-1405CE: 16M-19M.

30 Years' War 1618 May 23 - 1648 May 15: 8M casualties.

English Civil War 1642-1651: 84,830 English died in battle, 190K + 60K in Scotland + 618K in Ireland from all causes.

siege of Derry 1689-04-18 to 1689-07-28: 8K died, mostly from disease.

7 Years' War/French & Indian War 1755-1763: 500K to 1.3M. (Thomas K. McCraw 2012 _The Founders of Finance: How Hamilton, Gallatin, and Other Immigrants Forged a New Economy_ (400 pages; 4.5MB; 330.973) pg21; John Brewer 1989 _The Sinews of War_; Eliga H. Gould & Peter S. Onuf 2005 _Empire and Nation_)
Braddock's Field 1755 July 09: The British lost 456 soldiers (67 officers) with 521 wounded.   The French lost 23 and had 20 wounded.

American Revolution

Lexington 1775 April 19: 8 killed, about 10 wounded on the Green.   As they returned to Boston, the British were under constant assault from Massachusetts militiamen, who killed 73 and wounded 174; 26 were missing.   The Americans suffered 49 dead, 39 wounded, and 5 missing.

Brooklyn, Long Island, NY 1776-08-27 ~03:00-~12:00: "Counting both armies and the Royal Navy, more than 40K men had taken part... Howe reported his losses to be less than 400 -- 59 killed, 267 wounded, and 31 missing. The Hessians had lost a mere 5 killed and 26 wounded... Washington, unable to provide an exact count, would later estimate in a report to congress that about 700 to 1K of his men had been killed or taken prisoner." (David McCullough 2005 _1776_ pp 178-180)

Mountain Meadows Massacre

Mountain Meadows, UT 1857 September 11: 100-140 killed WikiPedia

American Civil War

Shiloh/Pittsburg Landing, TN 1862 April 6-7: 3,482 died, 16,420 wounded, 3,844 captured & MIA (total 23,746 casualties) (WikiPedia)

Antietam, MD: "On 1862-09-17, Union forces hurled back a Confederate invasion of [NorthWestern] Maryland in the Civil War Battle of Antietam [about 50 miles north of Washington, DC].   During the battle, 23,100 were killed, wounded or captured..." --- _NY Times_
23,100 casualties at Antietam, MD
Civil War Casualty Counts
Civil War Statistics by Battle
J. David Hacker estimates 750K died in Civil War and History Channel, Knoxville TN News Sentinel, and American Civil War   in 5K+ "battles or engagements" (per Edward James Stackpole & colonel Wilbur S. Nye, USA Army retired 1961 _Sheridan in the Shenandoah: Jubal Early's Nemesis_ pg vii Foreword (Civil War; Hunter flees before Early; battle of Winchester/Opequon; 413 pages; LoC 61-14913; Telegraph; 973.7 S775; Main))

After 1865

World War 1: over 16M deaths (about 10M military personnel and about 7M civilians), and 20M wounded; 116,516 USA soldiers (in 1918, influenza killed between 50M & 100M, most likely about 80M; about 675K in the USA).

Stats and links from 1945 to the present
Time-Line of Terrorism
Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the 20th Century

WW2: Operation Market Garden 1944-09-17 to 27: The Germans claimed to have taken 6,450 men prisoner. The Poles took 378 casualties, with 101st Airborne suffering 2,110 and 82nd Airborne suffering 1,432. The British ground forces suffered some 5,354 casualties, while the German casualties, like their unit strengths are almost impossible to calculate accurately, but are likely to range somewhere between 4K & 8K. Five Victoria Crosses were awarded, as were 2 posthumous Medals of Honour."

Palash Ghosh: IBTimes: how many killed at behest of Joseph Stalin
Stanford U estimates

Tony Rennell: UK Daily Mail: Mao's power-madness caused 60M deaths
  Lee Edwards, Ph.D.: Heritage: the mass murder legacy of Mao Tze-dung/Zedong
  Global Security: estimates

Korean War: 29,557-33,686 USA service members (all services) died in battle, or from battle-related injuries, during the Korean War. 4184 died from non-combat causes in the Korean theater. 92,934 were wounded in action seriously enough to be evacuated. (This number does not include those lightly wounded who were treated at battalion/regimental aid stations and returned to duty.) 7,245 service members became Prisoners-of-War.

William Kristol: Jewish World Review "More than 1.7M people died under Khmer Rouge rule between 1975 and 1979."

Andrew Bernstein "In Rwanda in 1994, Hutu tribesmen slaughtered hundreds of thousands of innocent victims, mostly members of the Tutsi tribe, hacking them to pieces with machetes, then stacking the corpses in piles like so much cordwood.   The Hutus butchered 800K men, women and children in 100 days, averaging 8,000 murders per day in 'the fastest, most efficient killing spree of the twentieth century'."

Rummel's Death by Government
170M people murdered by their own governments during the 20th century.
1917-1991, Soviet Union murdered about 62M of its own people.
During Mao Zedong's reign, 35,236,000+ Chinese citizens were murdered (Frank Dikoetter estimates it was 65M when direct and indirect casualties are summed).
Hitler's Nazis murdered 21M of its citizens and citizens in nations they conquered.
Pol Pot killed 750K to 2.3M
60M lives lost in war during the 20th century

Power Kills

"In 1997, a careful study by a team of European scholars, mostly of the left, found evidence that Communist governments killed 106M of their own people, mostly in the years from 1945 to 1989, a number so large that it is beyond imagining. The human toll of Communism [version of authoritarian collectivism] was nearly twice as large as that of Fascism [version of authoritarian collectivism], enormous as that had been." --- David Hackett Fischer 2005 _Liberty and Freedom_ pg575 (citing Stephane Courtois, Jean Louis Panne, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartosek, Jean Louis Margolin, Nicolas Werth, Mark Kramer & Jonathan Murphy 1985, 1991, 1997, 1999 _The Black Book of Communisn: Crimes, Terror, Repression_/_Le Livre Noir du Communisme: Crimes, Terreur, Repression_ pg14)

The Nazis murdered about 20M of their own people and those in nations they captured.   The word Nazi is short for National Socialist German Workers Party.   Between 1917 and 1987, Stalin and his successors murdered, or were otherwise responsible for the deaths of about 62M of their own people.   Between 1949 and 1987, Mao Tsetung and his successors were responsible for the deaths of about 76M Chinese.   The origins of the unspeakable horrors of Nazism, Stalinism and Maoism did not begin in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s.   Those horrors were simply the end result of a long evolution of ideas leading to consolidation of power in central government in the quest for "social justice". [quoting/paraphrasing Walter E. Williams 2009-10-07 "Elites and tyrants"]

US Military Service Fatalities 1980 through 2006
2009-09-15: American War and Military Operations Casualties (pdf)
2014-07-14: More than 170K have died to date in the Syrian civil war

18th century "necrometrics"   and Matthew White's NecroMetrics site in general

Book of Horrible Things site site

see also Michael Clodfelter 2002 _Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures 1500-2000_

USA Motor Vehicle Deaths
USA Motor Vehicle Deaths per 100 million miles traveled
USA Motor Vehicle Deaths per 100K Population

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